Friday, February 22, 2019


Improve your seamanship and boating abilities.

Knot Tying: Seamanship: Knots, Bends, and Hitches pt1-2 1973 Dept of Defense 14min

video for embedding at

NEW VERSION in one piece instead of multiple parts:

“Teaches how to tie the square knot, figure 8, bowline, half hitch, timber hitch, rolling hitch, clove hitch, cats paw, single and double sheet or becket bend, fisherman’s bend, and double carrick bend.”

Public domain film from the National Archives slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization and noise reduction.

Department of Defense training film TF55-4738

part 2:

from US Army Field Manual FM 3-97-61

The rope is a climber’s lifeline. It must be cared for and used properly. These general guidelines should be used when handling ropes.

a. Do not step on or drag ropes on the ground unnecessarily. Small particles of dirt will be ground between the inner strands and will slowly cut them.

b. While in use, do not allow the rope to come into contact with sharp edges. Nylon rope is easily cut, particularly when under tension. If the rope must be used over a sharp edge, pad the edge for protection.

c. Always keep the rope as dry as possible. Should the rope become wet, hang it in large loops off the ground and allow it to dry. Never dry a rope with high heat or in direct sunlight.

d. Never leave a rope knotted or tightly stretched for longer than necessary. Over time it will reduce the strength and life of the rope.

e. Never allow one rope to continuously rub over or against another. Allowing rope-on-rope contact with nylon rope is extremely dangerous because the heat produced by the friction will cause the nylon to melt.

f. Inspect the rope before each use for frayed or cut spots, mildew or rot, or defects in construction (new rope).

g. The ends of the rope should be whipped or melted to prevent unraveling.

h. Do not splice ropes for use in mountaineering.

i. Do not mark ropes with paints or allow them to come in contact with oils or petroleum products. Some of these will weaken or deteriorate nylon.

j. Never use a mountaineering rope for any purpose except mountaineering.

k. Each rope should have a corresponding rope log…

l. Never subject the rope to high heat or flame. This will significantly weaken it.

m. All ropes should be washed periodically to remove dirt and grit, and rinsed thoroughly…

n. Ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) tends to deteriorate nylon over long periods of time. This becomes important if rope installations are left in place over a number of months.

o. When not in use, ropes should be loosely coiled and hung on wooden pegs rather than nails or other metal objects. Storage areas should be relatively cool with low humidity levels to prevent mildew or rotting. Rope may also be loosely stacked and placed in a rope bag and stored on a shelf. Avoid storage in direct sunlight, as the ultraviolet radiation will deteriorate the nylon over long periods…

When using ropes, understanding basic terminology is important. The terms explained in this section are the most commonly used in military mountaineering.

a. Bight. A bight of rope is a simple bend of rope in which the rope does not cross itself.

b. Loop. A loop is a bend of a rope in which the rope does cross itself.

c. Half Hitch. A half hitch is a loop that runs around an object in such a manner as to lock or secure itself.

d. Turn. A turn wraps around an object, providing 360-degree contact.

e. Round Turn. A round turn wraps around an object one and one-half times. A round turn is used to distribute the load over a small diameter anchor (3 inches or less). It may also be used around larger diameter anchors to reduce the tension on the knot, or provide added friction.

f. Running End. A running end is the loose or working end of the rope.

g. Standing Part. The standing part is the static, stationary, or nonworking end of the rope.

h. Lay. The lay is the direction of twist used in construction of the rope.

i. Pigtail. The pigtail (tail) is the portion of the running end of the rope between the safety knot and the end of the rope.

j. Dress. Dress is the proper arrangement of all the knot parts, removing unnecessary kinks, twists, and slack so that all rope parts of the knot make contact.

Improving Your Athletic Abilities

It does not matter which sport or activity you take part in, each requires a certain amount of ability and stamina. Becoming a stronger and better competitor can be accomplished first and foremost by improving your diet.

The more you improve your nutrition, the more power and energy your body will be able to generate. Those that fill their stomachs sugar and fats will drag their system down and make it feel sluggish; this makes it more difficult to exercise intensely or progress.

Sugar is very detrimental to the body, and is one of the worst substances an athlete can overload on. It can be a challenge trying to avoid it because it is present in so many different foods, but the less you consume, the better you will feel.

Soda is one substance that will drastically decrease your ability to perform. The sugar content is very high, and will give you an initial boost of energy, followed by a very strong crash

This has a negative effect on your body’s ability to generate its own energy and maintain blood sugar. Refined sugar is especially harmful.

Try reducing your intake or avoiding it altogether, because it drastically alters your metabolism. Some forms of fat are beneficial to an athlete’s system; however, you must understand which are okay to consume and which types should be avoided.

Saturated fats, the kind found in red meats and many snacks, are solid at room temperature and clog your system. Unsaturated fats, like vegetable oils, are sometimes beneficial; find out which types will assist you and are acceptable.

Athletes should stick to a strict regimen of fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and nuts. It will aid in creating natural energy and making you feel full; you will be able to lose weight while still eating enough to keep yourself going through your workout.

A better diet will help reduce the amount of fat present in the body. Another great idea for athletes is to integrate a multivitamin into their daily routine.

These can boost the functionality of your organs and system and prevent you from getting sick. Protein is vital to those that want to increase lean muscle mass and have more strength and energy.

Water and hydration is one of the most important things to focus on during workouts. The more you sweat, the greater amount of liquids your body needs.

Though over consumption of sports drinks is not a good idea, due to their high sodium content, the body may need these types of liquids to replenish electrolytes. Make use of them in moderation.

When it comes to working out, every sport is different. Each one requires a different level of aerobic stamina and muscle strength.

Either way, getting enough cardio will really assist you in performing to the best of your ability. Those that usually only spend time lifting weights in the gym will want to rethink their exercise plan and hop on a treadmill.

Making use of exercise machines that work your cardiovascular system will give you an edge when you play. Your body will be able to power itself for longer.

Basketball and soccer players, especially, can gain a lot of extra help in their craft through the use of a treadmill and a running plan. Cardiovascular health is not just important for athletes; it is essential for anyone who wishes to remain healthy and fit.

Strength training is vital to most types of sports players. Strong muscles help to propel you better and also keep your metabolism working.

Performing strength training is very necessary to any type of athlete, whether you are a dancer or a football quarterback. It gives your body muscular endurance and aids you to make it through exercise, games, and performances without tiring or losing your power.

Perform arm exercise with dumbbells, or do squats and lunges while holding hand weights. This will build muscle endurance without causing your to feel too worn out..

The greatest athletes of all time have been willing to attempt and learn other crafts and sports. Doing so with assist you in becoming well-rounded, while also working your system in different ways than it is used to.

Hard work and determination is the main component in growing as a competitor; if you are not mentally prepared to take on the challenge, then your body will not follow. If you push yourself, you will notice a difference in how well you are able to perform.

Tommy Greene is a personal trainer and has authored hundreds of articles relating to physical training and fitness exercise equipment. He has been a health expert and physical trainer for over 15 years.

Contact Info:
Tommy Greene

Related Improve Seamanship And Boating Abilities Articles

How the Rudder Actually Moves the Boat, Generates “Lift”

This video compares a skeg and rudder to an aircraft wing. The idea of your rudder is that is swings the stern side to side using differential pressure or “lift”. As you increase this differential pressure to turn sharper you also increase drag. At some point, you will start to actually lose turning force as you turn your rudder more, yet continue to generate more drag. Having an understanding of how this works can make you a much better coxswain or bowman (blind boat), and improve your steering abilities. Good Luck!

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